It is believed that Machu Picchu was built around AD 1460 by Inca Pachacutec at the peak of the Inca empire. Pachacutec is credited with the expansion of the Tawantinsuyo and therefore the consolidation of power. There are many theories on why Machu Picchu was built but few among the foremost plausible. The most common conclusion from experts on Inca history and archaeologists is that it had been built first and foremost as a retreat for the Inca and his family. Machu Picchu was also a sacred place where the Inca and his family could worship natural resources. The Sun and other deities was important to Inca religion. Understanding Inca history may be a puzzle as they didn’t have a written communication so there’s no record of its history. Historians and archaeologists were ready to tell us about their history by studying their artifacts.
Machu Picchu was strategically located within the ridge between Mountain Machu Picchu and Huayna Picchu within the most inaccessible area of the Urubamba River. It is so hidden that not even the Spaniard conquerors were able to find it. The reason for its remote location is not certain but historians speculate that it was either for security or it was a special to access the gods. In case of an attack by the enemy there’s just one entry point which might are easier to identify just in case of invasion and straightforward to defend. Mountains were specially sacred to the Incas, specially snow capped mountains with its dependable supply of water. The place was surrounded by religious features where Machu Picchu was built. Priests noticed the movement of the sun, moon and stars and the way they aligned with mountain peaks during certain times of the year like the solstice. They carefully observed these events before planning the situation of every building.
Machu Picchu was a piece ongoing and it’s believed that it had been built throughout the duration of the Inca Empire. The main buildings and structures were built while Pachacutec reigned from 1438 to 1470, successive generations kept adding thereto and it had been abandoned in 1572 when the Spaniards arrived in Cusco.
Discovery by Hiram Bingham
The Spaniards never found Machu Picchu, so unlike other Inca cities, it had been never destroyed or changed, only a couple of local families who farmed nearby knew of its existence but not its significance. On a sunny day in July 1911, guided by a peasant boy, Hiram Bingham, an American explorer, accidentally discovered the “Lost City of the Incas”. Hiram Bingham’s expedition was sponsored by Yale University and therefore the National Geographic Society was in search of the “last resting place of the Incas”. The city”Machu Picchu” was covered by vegetation and overgrown trees. Its walls covered with moss, it had been almost invisible. To his surprise it had been in intact condition just how the Incas had left it 1572. Bingham discovered the ruins of Machu Picchu.
Machu Picchu was designated a world Historic engineering Landmark. It stood hidden within the Andes Mountains for about 400 years with no maintenance and sign of erosion . Its construction was so innovative and ingenious, the utilization of drainage and materials have allowed the citadel to face for quite 400 years.
Today Machu Picchu is a component of the heritage of the Inca Civilization. The Inca ruins is one among the foremost visited tourist attractions in South America and therefore the hottest tourist destination in Peru. In order to guard its national heritage the govt of Peru has declared it a National Sanctuary. UNESCO gave Machu Picchu the status of World Heritage site in 1983.
Why was Machu Picchu inbuilt the primary place?
First of all, Machu Picchu is one among three sacred peaks to the Inca, so for an emperor like Pachacutéc there might be no better place to determine his residence. Second, it sits much less than the closest city of Cuzco while Machu Picchu stands on top of a peak, making it warmer than nearby towns. The rain and therefore the sacred Urubamba River also fed into an intrinsic system of irrigation and sanitation at the location .
Currently, 2,500 visitors are allowed to visit Machu Picchu daily. Given the fact that the site is so difficult to get to — in spite of the transportation systems put in place in the past few years — this is quite an impressive number. Most tourists venture into the Inca Trail starting in Cuzco, 50 miles away, for a three-day journey through the jungle to Aguas Calientes, the town closest to the site. From there, they will take a short train ride to the skirt of the mountain where Machu Picchu rests. Some local guides warn that due to erosion and tourism, the site is losing half an inch a year. The same guides, though, also will say there are more Machu Picchus out there within the Peruvian forests waiting to be rediscovered and explored.
Machu Picchu Today
A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1983 and designated one among the New Seven Wonders of the planet in 2007, this site is South America’s most famous ruins Peru’s most visited attraction, every year welcoming many thousands of individuals. Increased tourism, the event of nearby towns and environmental degradation still take their toll on the location , which is additionally home to many species . As a result, the Peruvian government has taken steps to guard the ruins and stop erosion of the mountainside.